PILAR: HISTORICAL-CULTURAL TOURISM CENTER OF LUZON BY 2020.
We ensure the quality of life of every Pilarian through efficient and effective social services, programs and policies that promote inclusive economic growth.
LOCATION AND BOUNDARIES
: Southeast portion of the Province of Bataan
: Approximately 2.22 kilometers from the City of Balanga, Provincial capital
North : City of Balanga
: Highest elevation is 555 meters at Mt. Samat
Land Area : 4,520.23 hectares (about 3.44% of the land area of Bataan)
Income Classification : 3rd Class Municipality
No. of Barangay : 19
Population (2015 ) : 41,823
Population Growth Rate : 2.30%
No. of Households : 8365
Average HH size : 4.96
Pilar is called the “Last Bastion of Democracy in the Philippines” because this town was the site of the bloodiest confrontations between the invading forces of the Japanese Imperial Army and the defending American and Filipino soldiers during World War II.
This town is noted for historical landmarks like the Flaming Sword in Barangay Panilao and the Shrine of Valor (Dambana ng Kagitingan) which stood at Mt. Samat in Barangay Diwa. War veterans from different places visited the shrine annually during the celebration of Araw ng Kagitingan, a national holiday every 9th of April.
The secondary sector of the economy deals with manufacturing and processing, or those activities that seek to transform materials from one form to another. Activities under this sector are grouped into four categories: 1) mining and quarrying of metallic and non-metallic minerals, 2) manufacturing of all types of products, 3) generation of electric power, production of gas and steam, and development of waterworks systems, and 4) construction.
The tertiary sector covers all services including: 1) wholesale and retail trade, 2) transportation, storage and communication, 3) finance, insurance, real estate and business services, and 4) community, social and personal services.
There are three (3) registered cooperatives, one (1) bank (non-commercial bank), and three (3) pawnshops totaling to seven (7) financial institutions existing in the municipality. There is one (1) arcade, the Pilar Arcade existing located at Barangay Sta. Rosa. The Pilar Public Market built on the year 2002 in now converted as Bataan Government Center were government offices are located like PENRO, LTO, Fire Department, Insurance and Medical Stalls and Emission Testing Centers . We have the Sta. Rosa Wet Market (Talipapa) found in Barangay Sta. Rosa, were there are five (5) stalls paying their monthly rental and the other sections like the vegetables, fish, meat and fruits vendors are paying cash tickets base on their area and volume of goods. There is another talipapa found in Barangay Burgos owned and operated by private person.
Agriculture is the most important source of economy in the Municipality because of its agricultural land; hence, farming is primary economy in Pilar. Aside from rice, there are other agricultural products harvested. There are five barangays who have consistent increasing palay production. These are barangays Alauli, Nagwaling, Wakas North, Wakas South and Bantan Munti.
Four barangays have increasing vegetable production; they are barangays Alauli, Nagwaling, Diwa and Liyang. Barangay Alauli has a 2.1 percent average annual increase rate, Nagwaling has 1.8 percent, Diwa has 2 percent and Liyang has 1.4 percent. The same trend is seen for the turnips production in Wakas North and Sta. Rosa which registered a 2.4 and 2.2 annual growth rate respectively. Watermelon production is also increasing for the past five years. Barangay Liyang has a 6.7% annual growth rate, Diwa has a 5.3% annual growth rate and Pantingan has a 5%. Sweet potato production is also an increasing growth rates; Alauli with 3.5%, Nagwaling 3.5% and Diwa with 2.2 production growth. But the opposite is happening for the mango, coconut and banana which have been decreasing since 2004.
The swine production has increasing rate for four barangays. Barangays Nagwaling has 40% increased, Liyang has 20%, and Wakas North has 18% and Alauli 17.5% growth rate. But the carabao and cattle production has decreasing production rates.
Pilar has maintained its production volume for poultry for five barangays. Chicken production for two barangays, Panilao and Nagwaling has been maintained due to commercial contracts with San Miguel Corporation.
Fishpond production has suffered a lot for the past years. Inland fish production has been decreasing as well as area of production. Production inputs had been too costly for investors to continue production. Brackish production has only Balut II with increased production of 4 percent.
The Municipality of Pilar has beautiful locations that attract tourist from all over the country and the world, the Shrine of Valor in Mt. Samat and the Dunsulan Falls which have been a regular tourist attraction for the municipality, which is now gaining more arrivals due to the operation of zipline, a 540 m. zip from the pristine green of the mountain to the refreshing tree tops of the Dunsulan Falls.
In the Tourism Support Center (TSC) which involved the Barangays of Nagwaling, Diwa, Liyang and Pantingan. The growth node will support the tourism area of Mt. Samat. A trading Post of the Pilar RIC (Rural Improvement Club) Multi-Purpose Cooperative Barangay Bagsakan is operating and can be improved to include training center for the processing of fruit products. The areas will allow the location of resorts, restaurants and lodging houses. The idea is to support the number of tourists and pilgrims that annually visit Mt. Samat.
Barangays Wawa, Balut I, Balut II, Bagumbayan, Landing, Wakas North, Wakas South, Bantan Munti, Rizal and Burgos are clustered to be known as the Agro-Tourism Center (ATC) of Pilar. Agricultural activity is maintained in Wawa, Balut I, Balut II, Landing, Bagumbayan, Wakas North, Wakas South and Rizal. Aquaculture is also maintained and encouraged to infuse commercial component like opening of low density restaurants to cater local and out-of-town tourists. The fishponds in Wawa, Balut I, Balut II Wakas North and Wakas South are also maintained.
Coastal areas of the four barangays are considered as fish and mangrove sanctuary.
Barangays Sta. Rosa, Panilao, Poblacion and Del Rosario are the town center while Barangay Alauli locates the Bataan Government Center.
Health services in Pilar are delivered to the community by the two (2) Rural Health Units (RHUs). Both RHU II are housed in a two-storey building within the municipal compound and serves ten (10) barangays, namely; Poblacion, Del Rosario, Rizal, Burgos, Wawa, Landing, Wakas South Wakas North, Bagumbayan, & Bataan Munti. The RHU II maintains the second level of the building and serves nine (9), barangays, namely ; Panilao, Sta. Rosa, Balut I, Balut II, Alauli, Nagwaling, Diwa Liyang and Pantingan.
Serving the whole populace of Pilar is a doctor, a dentist, a medical technologist, two nurses, RHMs, a sanitary inspector, a dental aide and a utility worker. A total of 12 health personnel attend to the physical well-being of the residents of Pilar. However its operation is augmented by Barangay Health Workers assigned in 17 barangay Health Stations including the Main Health Station (Table 23).
Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI)/NPOC are the primary cause of morbidity from 2003 to 2007. However in 2007, the number of persons affected has decreased by almost 68% due to the implementation of health programs which are preventive in nature and the promotion of health awareness among constituents.
Cancer (uterus, liver breast, etc.) was the leading cause death in 2003. Pneumonia was the leading causes of mortality 2004 and 2005 but was replaced by CVA due to hypertension in 2007 (Table 25). This sudden change may be attributed to the lifestyle of the constituent’s particularly poor eating habits and others that are influenced by unhealthy attitudes.
Health programs are rigorously implemented in all barangays. Immunization is conducted monthly based on available vaccines supplied by DOH.
All health problems and programs mentioned are dependent on LGU support as health conditions can be easily improved through concerted efforts of the government and the people.
Garbage is being collected regularly and dumped at the dump site in the adjacent town.
In the census 2000 only 3% of the households have no water-sealed toilet facilities.
Schools, enrollment and Teacher to pupil ratios
The Schools District of Pilar is a one municipality district with 12 elementary schools located in different barangays complete with H.E. and Industrial Arts Buildings, libraries and other facilities. School year 2006-2007 posted a total of 4,377 elementary enrollees.
There are 131 public school teachers and 112 classrooms in the municipality elementary school system which accounts for a teacher-pupil ratio of 1:33 and the classroom-pupil ratio of 1:39 (National standard ratio is 1:40). These means that there are no overcrowded classrooms in Pilar. In addition there are emerging private schools which cater to upper income brackets.
Of the Household Population, 8,474 were attending school at anytime from June 1999 to March 2000 (NSO 2000). 6,928 attended schools in Pilar while 1,218 travel to adjacent municipalities or cities.
Majority of the buildings in the rural areas uses non-permanent type materials like wood for walling and nipa for roofing. In the Poblacion however, semi-concrete and concrete houses are common. The vast land area of Pilar can well accommodate the housing requirements of the growing population, At present, housing poses not much problem and the local government has not ventured into resettlement projects. The low income groups generally are provided with adequate shelter.
Houses in all the barangays are concentrated along transportation routes. Some houses are scattered especially in the very remote barangays. Inspite of the fact that housing is not a major problem, the municipality also engages in the appraisal of the housing needs of the population. Adequate land area is similarly delineated as the rest of the sector. The crucial task of the municipality with regard to housing is in the provision of adequate resources and facilities such as water supply, electric power and in consonance with housing standards, to all socio-economic levels of the municipality.
Social Welfare Services
At present, these social welfare programs are being implemented by eighteen (18) day care workers and one (1) social worker assistant.
On top of this, these day care workers also serve as teachers for pre-school children of the municipality. Two of the DCW are regular employees and derive their salaries from the municipal government while the others depend on the honorarium given to them by the municipality in addition to the tuition fees of the enrollees.
DAY CARE CENTERS IN PILAR
2003 – 2007
Source MSWDO, Pilar
* Accreditation rating given to Day Care Centers where l is the lowest and 5 is the highest
Social Welfare Programs
In line with the national goals, social welfare programs in the municipality include:
1. Livelihood Programs:
a) SELF-EMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE-KAUNLARAN (SEA-K) – provision of capital assistance to a group of individuals to start or augment small business such as vending project to earn extra income for their family. The fund comes from DSWD-regional office.
b) Practical Skills Development – conduct of skills training for women, youth and other individuals who need skills for employment purposes.
- Information and Communication Technology Training (ICT) provision of the education and training on computer technology.
- Skills training in candle making, stuffed toy making, flower making, candy making.
1) Children Congress – an activity conducted in celebration of the Children’s Month in October where children show cases their talent in drawing, singing, dancing and poem reciting.
2) Nutrition Month Celebration – an activity conducted every month of July by parents and children in the Day Care Center wherein the theme of the activity is related to the importance of good nutrition.
3) Family Week Celebration – conducted every month of September. Families of children and their parents joined the other families to a bonding time.
1) Marriage Counseling- provided to couples about to be married and couples with marital problem/conflicts. Topics involve are self-awareness, aspect of marriage, communication, ingredients of good marriage and responsible parenthood.
2) Family Counseling – provision of counseling to families in conflict with members of the family.
Believing in the innate qualities of women’s contribution to nation building, these women are organized to form women’s group called KALIPUNAN NG LIPING PILIPINA (KALIPI) for women who were chosen leaders of the group are provided capability building like LEADERSHIP TRAINING.
Incompliance with the Senior Citizen’s Act maximizing the contribution of elderly on nation – building, issuance of privilege card for Senior Citizen’s (those aged 60 years old and above) is done. These senior citizens are organized into barangay association and then federated in the municipal and provincial level.
Issuance of Solo Parent Identification Card.
1) Organization of disabled persons
2) Educational Assistance
3) Provision of Assistance
4) Skills Training on Physical Therapy
Service provided to perpetrators of domestic violence with the goal of minimizing the cause of violence in the family. This is done through:
1) psychosocial interventions
2) counseling sessions
Provision of medical insurance to indigent families to ensure that medical needs are met.
1) Aid to Individuals in crisis situation
a) Children in conflict with the Law (CLCL)
b) Children’s cases in relation to RA 76l0
c) Women and children in difficult situation – RA 6292.
In 2007, the Municipality of Pilar has a reported total road length of 88.179 km, of which 52.087 km is concrete or 59.07%, 4.09km is asphalt overlay or 4.64%, 11.64 km is asphalt paved or 13.20%, 14.019 km is gravel road (12.119km is farm to market road) or 15.90%, 7.19% or 6.35 km is earth trail or unpaved road. The two major arterial roads traversing Pilar are the Roman super hi way and the Junction Layac Balanga-Mariveles port road or the provincial road. The summary of road inventory is on table 5.1 and table 5.2 for the detailed road inventory.
Figure 6.1 Road network map
Fifteen bridges connect the barangays and sitios of Pilar. All of which are reinforced concrete. There are also reinforced concrete box culverts in the provincial roads which the drainage and irrigation canal crossed roads. A suspension bridge in Pilar which was well known as the hanging bridge connects the barangays Diwa to the Barangay Dangkol of the City of Balanga. The said hanging bridge is vital to the farmers of Diwa as they are tending most farms in Dangkol. It needs complete repair because of the corroded cables and wooden planks require replacement.
A total span of 354.50 meters of bridge with good condition and are all passable to all types of vehicles. A detailed summary of which are found in table 5.3
The major inter-regional and intra- regional modes of transportation are air-conditioned and ordinary buses. There is no direct trip from Pilar to Manila, but there is a direct trip from Mariveles to Manila via the Roman Super hi way. There is a terminal of motorized tricycle plying the route of Pilar to Balanga City which is 2 km away from the Municipal Hall of Pilar. Balanga City host the terminal of the province for the busses and jeeps that routes to all municipalities.
There is one (1) terminal for jeeps for hire, the BLODA-routing Balanga-Lamao and vice versa located at Barangay Sta. Rosa. Eight (8) tricycle associations are established in the municipality, there are PILTODA, SRBTODA, ALTODA, LANTODA, WATODA, NAGTODA and PANTODA.
The Peninsula Electric Cooperative or PEΝELCO (formerly called the Bataan Electric Cooperative or BATELCO) serves the electrical needs of the municipality of Pilar. Based on the status of electrification of BATELCO. All barangays are with electricity except for some households. Households that have no electrical connections use kerosene lamps and candles/as for their lighting. As for their cooking, residents resort to the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) wood, charcoal or kerosene.
Power facilities and services are quiet efficient except for the occurrence of occasional brown-outs caused by power shortage from power plants.
Electricity is a basic need that could spur innumerable benefits to the areas and a vital component in both the industrial and domestic requirements of the town. With the projected increase in population, a corresponding revitalization of economic activities will occur that will support their production.
Reliable communication processes the awareness of people and makes them a potent instrument of development and partner of social improvement. Mass communication facilities and services for telephones, telegraphs and postal are in existence.
The Philippine Postal Corporation is responsible for postal services such as domestic and foreign mails and money orders. The office is located in the municipal hall.
Telephone services are being provided by DIGITEL and Philippine Long Distance Telephone Companies. Both stations are located in the adjacent municipality.
The structure of labor force and facilities by the Philippine Postal office in the municipality : 3 letter carriers, each is equipped with motorcycle for delivery, 1 postmaster and 1 sorter, the postal office is equipped with 1 mail truck,1 mail box, 3 shuttle bags, 1 metered machine, 1 scale for letters and 1 safety vault.
Irrigation system of Pilar is distributed in all barangays. Since Pilar is primarily agricultural in nature national and local construction of irrigation systems are helping support the local agricultural production. The National Irrigation Administration has installed 83 percent of the irrigation system in Pilar. The irrigation system is maintained by the respective Irrigation Services Associations of each barangay.
Social Development Support
Pilar is blessed to have the following social infrastructure support for the delivery of basic services to the people. There are almost one daycare center per barangay. There are 12 public elementary schools serving the community. There are also 2 public high school buildings in Pilar.
Inventory of Cemeteries
Pilar has two public cemeteries that are already filled up. Currently the Municipal Government is locating a site for the third public cemetery.
Inventory of Religious Structures
Pilar has a total of 28 churches and chapels serving the whole municipality. Three major religious groups serve the spiritual needs of the residents: Catholics, Protestants and Iglesia ni Kristo.
Pilar is part of the historical Death March of Bataan. Special markers can be seen along the roads informing visitors that the roads they are taking are one of the routes taken by our Filipino soldiers with their American counterparts.
Economic Development Support
For Economic infrastructure support, Pilar has two small markets. Pilar has beautiful locations that attract tourists from all over the country and the world. The Dunsulan Falls and the Shrine of Valor in Mt. Samat have been a regular tourist attraction for the municipality. Parks are also found in 6 barangays that also serve as landmarks of the area.
Government buildings serve as seat of power and source of public services. Pilar is fast providing quality public services to its residents. Recently the municipal government was able to open its new government center. Numerous national agencies were able to relocate their offices to provide services to the people of Pilar. Other institutional infrastructure supports are barangay halls.
Environment and Natural Resources
Pilar has a total land area of 4,520.2063 hectares or about 3.44% of the total land area of the province of Bataan. Based on NSO data for 2000, Pilar has fraction of percent composition of the whole province. Residential land use is almost 5 percent, commercial agricultural land is 3.7 percent and protected agricultural land use is 4.3 percent.
Forest Land Use
Bataan has a total of 26,586 hectares of forest land area. According to the report given by the DENR, the First District has a total of 16,214 hectares of forest land while District 2 has a total of 10, 372 hectares. The Distribution of this forest land is seen on Table 2 below. Pilar has a total of 1,598 hectares of forest land or just 6% of the total forest land area of the whole Bataan province.
The Municipality of Pilar with the assistance of NAMRIA had delineated their coastal waters. The Municipality passed Municipal Ordinance No. 2008-04 regulating the use of its municipal waters. The technical description of the municipal waters is as follows:
There are four (4) big rivers in Pilar; the Masuaje, Catmon, Habasag and Pantingan. The Talisay River which belongs to Balanga, forms as the dividing line between the municipality of Pilar and Balanga. The Masuaje River and the Magsaysay Irrigation System contribute to the Agricultural development of the municipality.
Another water resource of the municipality is its ground water with water table varying at depths of 10 to 30 feet in high place. Due to the limited areas covered by the waterworks system, artesian walls, force pumps and other mechanical devices are extensively used to obtain water for laundering, bathing even for domestic used. Ground water is also used as source of irrigation water but not extensively since, this is more expensive than using surface water.
Solid Waste Management
Inclusion of environmental management in every study of a given area is just as necessary as other sectors. At present, Orion is hosting the dumping of the collected and generated garbage for its disposal. The Municipality of Pilar has two dump trucks with 7 utility men, including the driver, per truck collections of solid waste is done on a scheduled basis and covers only thirteen (13) barangays. Other parts of the town are not served by the existing collection system as the municipality has not enough collection vehicles, equipment and personnel to cover the whole town. The people however, are used to burning their waste in their backyards and/or throwing down to a ready made dug-outs. Air pollution is not much of a problem in the municipality since there is no major industry in existence. The table below will show the number of households utilizing per type of garbage disposal for 1990 and 2000. The table showed that there is an increase in the number of households practicing composting and burning.
The Municipal Engineering Office was able to provide the volume of wastes collected for disposal from 2004 to 2007. The data shows an increase and slight decrease over the years.
Topography and Drainage
The terrain of the municipality is level is gently sloping to undulating, strongly rolling and hilly to mountainous. The highest elevation is 553 meters at Mt. Samat in Barangay Diwa.
The Masuaje River, Talisay River and Streams of this municipality drain the different barangays and empty into the Manila bay. All rivers and streams and its tributaries are classified only as floatable and not navigable because they become shallow due to soil erosion during rainy seasons and the onset of low tide to outlet barangays of Balut II, and Wawa.
Pilar has two (2) distinct pronounced seasons, the wet and dry. The wet season falls between the months of May and October with a monthly average rainfall of 13.9 inches. Temperature during these months remains steady between 26 to 28 degrees centigrade. The months of July, August and September are the months of heavy precipitation while March, April and May are the dry and hot months. The dry season is marked by an almost 29 degrees centigrade and shoots up as high as 34 degrees centigrade.
The different soil types generally found in Pilar are classified into six (6) major physiographic groupings namely:
This is a miscellaneous land type consisting of alluvial materials of mixed origin overlying very deep recent marine and brackish water and organic deposits. They occur within the tidal zones along the shore of Manila Bay which most of the time are continuously under salty tidal water.
These soils are composed of predominantly gray; slightly firm sandy clay loam. Clay loam, silt loam or loam surface layer, no more than 30 to 50 centimeters thick. Below this extending to a depth of 150 to 250 centimeters are partly or wholly decomposed organic matters. Underneath are stratified layers of silt loam, fine sand, coarse sand or loamy finds sand with sometimes presence of marine shells
2. Bongliw silty clay loam
The Bongliw series is a member of the fine clay family, deep ad poorly drained soils. These soils have dark gray, gray, light gray, dark grayish brown, grayish brown, light brownish gray, greenish gray, bluish gray, light greenish gray, and light bluish gray ; slightly firm to firm clay loam, clay silty clay loam and silty clay A horizons with distinct to prominent strong brown and yellowish red mottles, no more than30-40 centimeters thick overlying cambic B horizons with predominantly gray matrix colors (dark gray, gray, light gray, bluish gray, light greenish gray and light bluish gray) in combination with distinct yellowish brown and strong brown mottles. Textures in the B horizon belong to fine particles size class (35-60% clay). C horizons are reduced clays with dark gray to gray or dark greenish (bluish) gray to greenish (bluish gray) colors.
3. San Manuel fine sandy loan and San Manuel silt loam
The San Manuel series is a member of the fine loamy family, deep and well drained soils. These soils have dark brown, dark yellowish brown, brown, grayish brown, dark grayish brown and very dark grayish brown, friable to firm clay, loam, silty clay loam, loam, silt loam and sandy clay loam A horizons no more than 50 centimeters thick. Few brownish to reddish mottles maybe present. B horizons are composed of predominantly brown, dark brown, yellowish brown and dark yellowish brown, friable to firm clay loam, silty clay loam, loam, silt loam and sandy clay loam. Like the A horizons, the B horizons may have few brownish to reddish mottles. C horizons below 100-150 centimeters from the surface are predominantly brown and are composed of weekly stratified loamy and sandy deposits.
San Manuel soils are formed on nearly level to locally, gently sloping (0-5% slopes) positions on flats or recent river floodplains.
4. Pilar silk loam and fine sandy loam
The soils of Pilar series are member of the fine loamy family, deep ad well-drained soils. They have dark brown, grayish brown and very dark grayish brown, friable to slightly firm, silt loam, silty clay loam, sandy clay loam and clay loam A horizons no more than 20-30 centimeters thick. Few gray and yellowish red mottles maybe present with few (3-25%) black manganese and brown iron concretions. B horizons are composed of dark grayish brown, dark brown, dark yellowish brown and brown, with similar soil texture to A horizons. Few gray mottles and spherical soft and hard black manganese concretions sometimes may occur. C horizons are brown to dark brown, grayish brown and sometimes gray, sandy clay loam, sandy clay, silty clay ad clay with thin strata of silt loam.
These soils are formed on flat to nearly level (0-5% slopes) elevated alluvial river-floodplains and are sometimes subject to seasonal flooding.
5. Balanga clay loam
The soil of Balanga series are member of the fine clay family, moderately deep and well drained soils. They have dark yellowish brown, strong brown to dark brown, dark brown, reddish brown and dark reddish brown slightly firm to firm sandy clay loam, clay loam and clay A horizons with brownish and reddish mottles, no more than 20 to 40 centimeters thick. When used for paddy rice cultivation, matrix color varies from grayish brown, dark grayish brown and very dark grayish brown with few gray mottles. B horizons are reddish brown, dark reddish brown and yellowish red; slightly firm to firm clay loam with few red mottles and few manganese concretions. C horizons are reddish brown, dark reddish brown, and yellowish red and red; slightly firm to firm clay loam and clay. Few to commons stones and boulders are present.
6. Antipolo clay and Antipolo Steep Phase
The Antipolo soils are member of the fine clayey family, shallow to moderately deep ad well drained soils. These have brown to dark brown, strong brown, light reddish brown, dark reddish brown and yellowish red; slightly firm to firm clay loam and A horizons with reddish mottles, no more than 20 to 40 centimeters thick. Few to common rock outcrops are present. B horizons are composed of reddish brown, yellowish red, and red; firm clay with reddish yellow and red mottles. Partially weathered parent materials probably basalt ad igneous rock are present. Embedded are few to common stones and boulders. C horizons are yellowish red, reddish yellow ad dark red firm clay with sometimes presence of dusky red ad weak red mottles. Common stones, boulders and bedrocks are present. These soils are formed from basalt, igneous and other volcanic rocks. It occurs from gently sloping to very steep mountain slopes.
The whole province of Bataan including the Municipality of Pilar can be classified broadly into one volcanic terrain. Most of the highest elevations are considered parts of the collapsed caldera forming a ring-like structure within the suspected mouths of Mount Natib and Mariveles. Other high peaks are most likely the stallitic vents of major volcanic craters presently occurring as plugs and dikes along the upper and mid-slopes of the volcano. Bordering these morpho-landforms is lave fields and flow plains with deep incision, steep cliffs, occasional gorges, and minor cascades. Coastal areas are classified by typical marine land form such as beach ridges, swales, and foreshore sand bars.
The protected area lies within the eastern flank of Bataan Peninsula which is made-up of two large volcanic edifices, the Mt. Natib on the north and the Mt. Mariveles on the south. These giant strata-volcanoes are made-up of alkaline shosonitic suites (C.C Panem, PNOC, 1988)
The geology of the surveyed area was based from the previous workers of the PNOC (1988). There are three (3) rock stratigraphic units exposed in the area. These are, the quaternary Pyroclastics (QP,) Quarternary Plug (QP) and Quarternary Alluvium (Qal) (see Plate l).
Quaternary Pyroclastics (QP)
The pyroclastic deposit occupies the rolling to hilly ground with infrequent deep incision in several sections of creeks and rivers. It is composed of volcanic breccia, tuff and tuff breccias and lahars. The volcanic breccia is slightly to moderately indurated and the clast is consists mainly of andesitic rocks while the lahars, tuff and tuff breccia are loosely cemented.
Quaternary Plug (QP)
The quaternary plug occurs as promontory hill located on the southern portion of the project area. It is made wholly of altic-andesites rock.
Location of Different soil type and principal crops
The Philippine archipelago forms part of the Circum-Pacific volcanic seismic belt. Geologically, it is characterized by tectonic mobility, wide-spread volcanism, and pervasive seismicity. The Philippines inherited their present geologic configuration from stresses associated with the confluence of two major subduction systems: the Manila trench-Bataan orogene in the west, and the Philippine-Quezon trench-Mayon orogene in the east.
Bataan falls under the geotectonic area where major fracture zones as indicated by the thin lines (as shown in Figure 1) and the origins as indicated by the full and broken lines. This makes Pilar vulnerable to seismic activities coming directly from the Manila trench-Bataan orogene subduction as evidenced by the number of earthquakes felt and experienced from December 1677. Bataan has experienced eight seismic activities since then.
Summary of Hazards
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